There are several different inventions and new technology that are discussed in Chapter 19. Pick one invention or piece of technology that you feel changed society in Europe (it can be for the good or the worse). Explain why with at least two examples in your initial response. Make sure to include a list of any sources (including your textbook) that you use in creating your response.
One of the latest inventions that completely changed and redesigned the world’s environment is The smoke-free tower, which is a purifying system. Named the smoke-free tower, it was created by the Dutch artist and inventor Dan rosegarden. This smoke-free tower can improve the quality of air that the citizens of the area breathe, and it can specifically reduce the level of air pollution. For example, it is a 7-meter-high structure that acts as a giant smoke vacuum cleaner, can purify over 30,000 cubic meters of air per hour, and uses very little green energy. Furthermore, it can capture over 75% of the PM 2.5 and other smoke particles and make sure that clean air can be released to the surrounding areas. This project over this tower can significantly improve the overall air quality of any given area and is now being utilized in various highly polluted areas of the world. This is a tower that a Dutch artist installed by the name of Daan Roosegarde And. This tower can effectively create over 30,000 cubic meters of air And takes in carbon from the surrounding area, which is later utilized to create gemstones that are used for jewelry. This effectively showcases how it has completely changed society in Europe by effectively do you take the different areas where the amount of smoke is extremely high. For example, many are placed around Poland, China, and other high-density areas where the amount of smoke is extremely high. This technology currency specifically improved the quality of air that individuals breathe. The carbon taken in by the smoke-free tower can be effectively utilized again for various decoration purposes and jewelry.
While there were many inventions introduced in Chapter 19, I believe that James Watt’s engine had one of the greatest impacts during the industrial revolution in Europe. As one of the many positives, “it was soon adapted to produce a rotary motion that could be used industrially in a multitude of ways, including grinding milling, sawing, and weaving” (Cole, 2020).The production of this engine eases the workflow in many industrial fields and can be seen as a way of profit for many merchants. On the effect of society, the engine affected many businesses and workers. Those seeking profit “depended on their ability to find sawyers, weavers, and field workers who were willing to accept a new way of working” (Cole, 2020). Service and demand has also increased for larger amounts of finished wood, clothing, and grain, affecting many businesses. People would begin working as wage laborers, working with machines rather than only working on manual labour with their own tools.
One invention/piece of technology that changed society in Europe in both good and bad ways was the spinning jenny. It was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764 and one of the reasons it was so revolutionizing was because it “could spin from six to twenty-four times more yarn than a hand spinner in the same amount of time” (Textbook). One of the good effects of this was great economic growth with imports/exports increasing by more then 100x in around 80 years. The bad effects of this invention were plentiful though. The conditions of the factories in which these machines were used were often harsh with many brutal injuries and young girls/women who were often overworked and payed little with shifts “that [sometimes] stretched from 3:00AM to 10:00PM” (Textbook). Alongside this, some traditional weavers were of course put out of employment without access to these machines as the price of cotton goods fell dramatically greatly impacting the profits of those unable to keep up. Another lasting effect of this which took years to amend was the use of child labor in the factories and in the newly created coal/iron mines that were rapidly expanding Europe’s intercontinental trade/export.
In my opinion, the invention that changed European society for the better is the steam engine. Not only was this invention revolutionary, but it also had the longest-lasting legacy when it comes to the industrialization of Europe. The steam engine was such a revolutionary technological breakthrough because it could be combined with other preexisting technologies in order to generate a variety of different uses.
One reason why the steam engine was so impactful is the fact that it revolutionized transportation. This did not just apply to the transportation of people, but also to that of goods and services. Because of inventions that were a result of or enhanced by the steam engine, such as ships and the railway system, it was now possible to efficiently transport goods. Specifically, ones that were too heavy to transport before, such as coal. This newfound transportation of goods greatly benefitted the speed and efficiency of trade, which in turn, stimulated the economy greatly and furthered the advancement of European society.
Another reason why the steam engine was so groundbreaking was its contribution to the factory work scene. As mentioned before, the steam engine could be combined with other pieces of technology in order to enhance their productivity. This especially applied to machines that were used both in factory work and to power factories as a whole. The steam engine helped factory workers move towards a system in which they could start relying on machines for the more grueling aspects of the labor they performed. Overall, the steam engine was an imperative tool when it came to the industrialization of Europe. In addition to this, the steam engine would act as a basis for new advancements in power sources for years to come.
Cole, Joshua, and Carol Symes. Western Civilizations (Brief Edition, Volume 2). Available from: VitalSource Bookshelf, (5th Edition). W. W. Norton, 2020.
Channel 5. “How The British Railway Created Time | How The Victorians Built Britain | Channel 5 #History.” YouTube, 31 March 2020,https://youtu.be/-TbLTpR0njo
As we read in chapter 19 many things were invented during the industrial revolution, such as Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine invented in 1711 but James and his partner added another condenser to the steam engine to generate more power and less fuel, industries technological leaps in creating cotton textiles and John Kay’s flying shuttle, which made the process of weaving a lot faster. One major invention was the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves which would make 16 threads at once. The cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 helped the process of taking out the seeds from the fiber and speeding up process and cost of cotton. By creating machines to help process and thread cotton faster but also separate the seeds in cotton from the fiber it allowed citizens to purchase clothing, different from wool, cheaper. But even though this has been a great invention that has impacted even our generation but I feel the best invention would be the modifications and improvements James Watt had on the steam engine.
As I stated above, James Watt and Matthew Boulton added a condenser to the steam engine and that generated more power but with this slight improvement it lead to more improvements on the engine which lead to something that transformed the world in the steam-driven locomotive. By creating these engines, trains were created and the first modern railway. The first run being from a coalfield in Stockton to Darlington. These locomotives also were helping transport goods and materials to these other cities or close ports to help expand the transportation and trading good industry. Even though the machines that help thread cotton and make clothes is a great invention I feel with the steam engine and the improvements on it helped transport the goods and help build factories in other cities and help build machines in factories.
As a result of the steam-driven locomotive not only were goods transported but also coal and metal were also a necessities in other cities. As a result, this helped build and expand the cities for more citizens to live close by for work. Then these engines had found another purpose on boats. This allowed for trades across the sea but at a faster pace. As we know in the 1850’s electricity was in development and by the 1900’s it was used everywhere but is needed for this production. Pumps were created to go with the steam engines to dig deeper into mines for coal.
Cole, Joshua, and Carol Symes. Western Civilizations Brief edition, volume 2. Vital source bookshelf (5th edition). W.W. Norton, 2020.
The spinning jenny was invented by James Hargreaves. It was created to transform the process of cotton spinning. It assisted in more threads of cotton being made at once by fewer spinners. The invention was much faster than hand spinning, which helped speed up the process in producing textiles. It overall made the production of cotton more efficient and quicker. With that being said, I believe this invention changed society in Europe both good and bad ways. It expanded the Industrial Revolution from England to the whole world, but it negatively impacted slavery as it made it more profitable. This eventually led into bigger issues such as the Domestic Slave Trade and the Civil War.
One of the inventions in my opinion that definitely changed the culture and society in Europe during the Industrial revolution was the invention of the Steam Engine. According to the textbook Western Civilizations, Brief Fifth Edition, Vol.2 (2020) p.641 The Steam engine was created in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen, but it was an underpowered engine that was limited in its use. It wasn’t until over 60 years later a Scottish mechanic named James Watt took the steam engine design and made some modifications that produced much great power ratios, while at the same time reducing the consumption of coal to operate the engine. This design change and with the adaptation of rotary motion, propelled the steam engine into many new production processes, and eventually into the transportation industry powering Locomotives, Boats and Ships across Europe. Many industries benefitted from the steam engine because it opened the doors to faster results, production, and the transport of goods and textiles.
The next invention I chose is arguably one of the most important inventions in the textile manufacturing industry. According to the textbook Western Civilizations, Brief Fifth Edition, Vol.2 (2020) p.645, the invention is the Spinning Jenny, created by James Hargreaves in 1764. The Spinning Jenny allowed the process of spinning thread to keep up with the relentless demand required in the process of weaving cloth for the textile industry. The Spinning Jenny was able to spin 16 threads at the same time, rather than one thread at a time. Later other inventions were spawned from its creation that furthered the textile industry to producing cloth for more and more areas of Europe.
There are many inventions and overall new technology mentioned in chapter 19. The one that stuck out to me the most was the railways. Transporting materials that were not easy to transport due to weight, such as coal, needed something that could easily take them to their destinations, whether it be for trading or for resupplying businesses. The railways made this possible, thus single-handedly changing the way we transport heavier supplies to other locations, Doing this made transportation so much easier for society in Europe overall. The railways benefitted Europe as it allowed more supplies to be transported at a time, while also shortening the time it took originally to transport these items. Production of goods and supplies, such as coal for example, expanded completely. However, this meant that the demand for it went up. While it became much faster to ship out items to various locations, it meant that the demand for such items would go up, which also meant that more labor was called for.
I think that one of the most impactful pieces of technology that changed society in Europe was railways. I think that the reason that railways affected society so much is because of the speed that they traveled. They were able to travel on land at 15 miles per hour while carrying heavy materials. This allowed for more innovation because the transportation of materials became less of an issue which allowed for a lot of advancement in the industrial revolution. I think that another way rail roads changed society in Europe was it allowed them to transport large numbers of people from one location to another quickly. Overall I think that railways in Europe allowed for Europe to advance in many different facets and I believe that they caused the greatest impact on European society.
The introduction of railways in Europe had a major impact on society and the economy. The railway system had a transformative impact on European society, shaping its social, economic, and cultural landscape in ways that continue to be felt today. Some examples of this would be railways transformed transportation, making it faster, more effective, and more accessible to a larger population, among other ways. This made it easy to move products and people over long distances, enhancing trade and commerce. Another way railways influenced Europe was through industry. Railways eased the transfer of raw materials and completed commodities, which aided in Europe’s industrialization. As a result, manufacturing businesses expanded, producing new jobs and contributing to the region’s economic prosperity.
Railways not only changed society in Europe but in other parts of the world too. According to the article “8 Ways Railway Travel Changed Everything for Britain” the development of the railway made it possible to transfer products, information, and people from one end of the nation to the other in a matter of hours as opposed to days. Additionally, according to page 648 of our book “Western Civilizations” the construction of railways grew to be a significant undertaking and a “risky” but lucrative business opportunity.
While there were many different advancements in technology in this weeks chapter I think the one that stood out the most to me was the invention of the railway. Railways were able to connect the European continent like nothing that had come before it. In just 20 years there were over twenty-three thousand miles of railways built. The speed of these being built combined with the many subsidies that countries were giving corporations to build more rails clearly demonstrates how important they were to everyone. They also allowed trade at a scale that was not possible before over land as well as being able to easily transport resources and heavy building materials to where it would have been much harder to do so beforehand.
The invention of the steam engine was revolutionary to not only Europe, but the world. At the time the steam engine was invented, it put a lot of European nations ahead in terms of power. It advanced society with technology that could speed or cut work force. This allowed Europe to step into industrialization, and in a span of 100 years Europe progressed rapidly more than it had progressed in 500 years of advancement. This followed many inventions that would later give them an upper hand towards exploring new grounds.
In the current decade that we live, there is still the question on how such tiny nations were able to conquer such massive, and powerful lands. In reality, the most important factors that allowed Europe to bombard it’s way into Africa, were their advances in technology and weapons. Inventions like the steam engine and new forms of guns, gave nations in Europe the advantage to threaten and further invade places in Africa that had not been seen. It paved a way for colonization and exploitation, extracting all natural goods and treasures in uncommon lands.
Cole, Joshua; Symes Carol. Western Civilizations. New York, NY, W. W. Norton & Company, 2020.
Trains were an important technological development that was crucial in shaping modern Europe.
These vehicles were vital to industrial pursuits. Trains efficiently transport raw materials to factories or refineries, then deliver finished products to distributors. Industrial output and commercial availability of modern products increased greatly thanks to the train.
Trains also transport the workers who make the goods. Europe developed mass transit rail networks in many cities, which provided a timely and reliable commute to millions of workers. Factories could hire more people than ever before, and more people could earn a wage than ever before.
As a person who grew up around cities with subway systems, I miss trains so much. If I wanted to go somewhere busy like downtown, I could just buy a ticket and be there faster than in a car, and I could read the entire time. I wouldn’t have to look for parking or pay lot fees either.
The invention of technology I choose that changed society in Europe is the Electrical Telegraph. I feel like this invention changed Europe society because, it was an easier way for money to be sent and it help wars that were being fought.
The telegraph was an easier way to send money because, with the telegraph money was easier to be sent by “wire” rather than doing it by foot. Money was “wired” across wide distances.
And lastly, the telegraph helped wars that were being fought because whoever was in charge had easier access to quickly rely messages to the soldiers on the field and their own people to keep everyone updated.
During the Industrial Revolution, the introduction of railways in Europe drastically altered time and distance. With less transportation time, businesses could push for a higher output of goods, maximizing profit. Overall, railways provided a completely new perspective on the industrial revolution.
The federal government provided land grants along major railroad rights-of-way. The railroads could then sell this land and profit not only from shipping but also from land sales. Another factor that aided railroad growth was the United States’ rapid westward expansion following the Civil War. Railroads made society more interconnected. Because of the reduced travel time, counties were able to collaborate more easily. With the help of a steam engine, People could travel to distant locations much faster than if they had only used potency transportation.
Cole, Joshua & Carol Symes. Western Civilizations, brief 5th edition Vol 2. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2020.