Chapter 4, and one from

(choose at least one topic from Chapter 4, and one from Chapter 5 (see below for topics)- the third can be from either…..)

Chapter 4- Carbohydrates

1. The chapter on carbohydrates is interesting; if nothing else, I hope it clarifies the issues on the different starches and sugars …. especially glucose. As essential as carbohydrates are, problems in metabolism, digestion and other body processes can occur. Many beliefs (factual and anecdotal) surround carbohydrates in the diet.

What are some of the things you have heard about carbohydrates and your health? Discuss….

Why do we need carbohydrates; functions in the body? Discuss….

Lately, carbohydrates have been accused as “fattening”, as one of the major causes of obesity. High fructose corn syrup has been especially focused on as a culprit. If the general public reduces their intake of sugar, will the prevalence of obesity decrease? What do you think? Do you think artificially sweetened foods (those using the calorie-free sweeteners) contribute to or help prevent obesity? Support your discussions with evidence….

2. What do you think about the role of diet in relation to type 2 diabetes? Discuss and use reputable sources to back your answers. Diabetes II is rapidly increasing in this country, worldwide; even among children.Why do you think this is and what do you think might be good solutions for prevention (hint…what causes insulin resistance and what dietary/lifestyle approaches help us with insulin resistance)?

Thoughts on the article below?

Also- find an article or YouTube video in regards to the link between obesity and the development of Type 2 diabetes and discuss; include the link.

3. Discuss lactose intolerance….causes, physiology, symptoms…. do you think someone with lactose intolerance can tolerate any dairy foods? Why or why not? If so, which ones, and why?

And speaking of carbohydrates and the gut, what do you think about the role of fiber and disease prevention? Name the differences between soluble and insoluble fiber–how do each of these fibers contribute to health? What foods are good sources of each? Talk about the typical American diet and fiber…. and what is the recommended intake?

Chapter 5- Lipids1. What is the role of fats in cardiovascular disease? This is an area of debate: Walter Willet at Harvard has seen lower rates of heart disease with the traditional Crete diet, which has plenty of fat in it (olive oil), and also noticed in the Nurses Health Study that the women who have used non-fat salad dressing ended up with more heart disease than those that used oil and vinegar type dressings. The French paradox is interesting, here, too- lower rates of heart disease and yet a diet with plenty of fat in it. Willet’s Harvard pyramid, thus, has “heart-healthy” oils at the base. On the other hand, Dean Ornish (a noted cardiologist at the University of California at San Francisco) and Colin Campbell at Cornell believe a very low fat diet is the way to go- Ornish has seen reversal of heart disease on this type of vegetarian, very low fat diet, and Campbell’s conclusion is based on his landmark China Study- where he saw lower rates of heart disease in China among those who consumed the least amount of fat. So we have noted scientists and evidence supporting each point of view. What do you think? And why? Back up your discussion with evidence.

Also– Go to check out your personal heart disease risk. This is a great interactive tool that includes diet as a risk factor. What do you think? Note that when you are finished, and you see your results (on a barometer type of scale), you can then see how your risk could be lowered by changing some habits….. This site also has risk assessment quizzes for other diseases, as well (such as cancer, osteoporosis, etc.)

2. What do you think of fat-free and low-fat manufactured foods? Do you think the consumption of these products helps reduce weight or heart disease?Investigate- look up a product, and then a low fat version of the same product, and compare (share the link/and or picture of the labels with the class). Looking at the Nutrition Facts labels for each:–Compare total calories for a product of your choice: the regular versus the low fat versions…… Any surprises there? Difference in amounts of carbohydrate/protein/fat and ingredients between the two? Compare and discuss.

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