Homework 06

The human population is approximately ________.

7 Billion


Which of the following best describes the human population from early times to the present?

Slow, uneven growth until the 1800s, then increasingly rapid growth


The world population growth rate is currently close to ________%.



The most accurate terms describing the trend over the past 50 years for human use of natural resources are ________.

increasing and unsustainable


Malthus was responsible for ________.

the idea that without social restrictions increasing human population would lead to famine and war                                                


Which of the following statements about growth rate and population size is true?

If the growth rate remains steady, population size will continue to increase by greater increments with each generation.


When birth rates decline, what happens to a given population?

The average age of the population grows older


Which of the following are the three principal effects of a human population that determine its impact on the environment (the IPAT model)?

population, affluence, technology


Which large country is currently experiencing zero or even negative population growth?



Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape?



Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape?

inverted pyramid


Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape?

a rectangle tapering toward the top


In a country where there are increasingly more households, ________.

consumption should increase


According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.

increases environmental impact


The view held by both Malthus and Paul Ehrlich suggests that depletion of resource supplies due to greater numbers of people ________.

is a problem because some resources are limited and can be depleted


Population growth is at the root of many serious environmental problems. From the ancient Babylonians thousands of years ago, to Thomas Malthus two centuries ago, to present day neo-Malthusians, humans seem to possess an awareness of Earth’s limitations in the face of growing populations. Today, our ability to accurately quantify, monitor, and control population growth is very sophisticated. We can measure growth and make predictions about world growth with mathematical and computer models. Can we prevent disaster?

Despite dire predictions in the past, humans still inhabit Earth. A few economists would argue that this is because ________.

technological developments have alleviated some of the strain on Earth’s resources


Which of these statements about the growth of the human population is true?

The rate at which the population has been growing has slowed in the past 50 years, but the human population is still getting larger.


If a country has a growth rate of 2%, how long will it take to double its population?

35 years


Why do we study demography?

Demography investigates the relationship between population ecology and population changes.


What is the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain?

carrying capacity


Of the following, which provide the most complete picture of whether a population of humans grows, shrinks, or remains stable?

rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration


What occurs during the final stage, the post-industrial stage, of the demographic transition model?

Both the birth rate and the death rate continue along at very low levels.


When an agrarian economy transitions to an industrial economy, what effect does it have on the population?

Population growth rate slows.


How do women cause a reduction in the TFR?

through empowerment, personal choice and education


Which of the following statements about Earth’s carrying capacity for humans is true?

Human beings are not unlike other animals concerning carrying capacity, but we utilize technology to artificially raise the carrying capacity increasingly higher.


Which of the following was a factor in helping to reduce total fertility rate of developed countries in the recent past?

better medical care


Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time.


As a group, these nations have the lowest rates of population growth today. developed nations

The nations in this group have populations with many more people in the pre-reproductive age class than in the post-reproductive class. developing nations

These nations will experience the vast majority of population growth in the coming decades. developing nations

A high proportion of the nations in this group have total fertility rates below replacement level fertility. developed nations

Some nations in this group are in the transitional stage of the demographic transition model. developing nations

In general, women in these nations have higher access to education, employment, and contraception. developed nations

These nations account for only about 20% of the global human population. developed nations


In 2006, the population of the United States reached 300 million. As the nation’s population has increased, its demographics have shifted as well, including the numbers of people per household. The bar graph depicts the percentage of U.S. households of different sizes in 1970 and in 2000.

What was the overall trend in household size from 1970 to 2000?

Household size decreased.


What percentage of households in 2000 had 3 or fewer people?



Which of the following statements best describes the implications of household size for energy consumption and land use and development?

Overall energy and land use will depend on the type and density of housing developments in an area.


If current trends continue, with parents in the U.S. choosing to have fewer children on average (for example, 1 or 2 children versus 3 or more), how will future household sizes be affected?

Households of 3 and 4 people will increase.


The numbers between the bars (in the middle of the graphs) serve as the y-axis. What do these numbers represent?

the age classes, in 5-year ranges


What do the bars on the graphs represent?

the number of males and females in each age group


In 2014, how many 25- to 29-year-old women lived in Niger?

about 0.6 million


The colors of the bars on the graphs indicate the life stage of the people in that age class. What does it mean if a bar is colored red?

The people in that age class are past reproductive age.


The 2014 age-structure pyramid for Niger indicates that the population of Niger ________.

was increasing


In the Netherlands in 2014, which age classes contained the largest number of people?

adults between 45 and 54


In the Netherlands in 2014, people between the ages of 45 and 54 made up the largest percentage of the population. What factor is most likely to have caused this bulge in the age pyramid?

a surge in the birth rate after World War II ended in 1945


Assuming that current trends continue, predict how the age structure of the Netherlands in 2034 will likely differ from that in 2014.

The proportion of the population made up of older adults (65+) will increase.


Based on a comparison of the age-structure pyramids, which of the following would likely be a higher priority in the Netherlands than in Niger?

providing long-term care for the elderly


Looking at the figure, you are able to determine ________.

that the population in the part (b) is growing rapidly


The population in part (a) is likely to experience ________ soon.

more senior citizens

Which climate contains the highest population density?

humid subtropical


Which of the following climates contains the LOWEST population density?



Why does Africa have the highest total fertility rate but a lower population density than parts of southern and eastern Asia?

People in Africa are spread out over a greater area.


Which region has the highest percentage of its population under age 15?



What does a high percentage of population under age 15 tell us about a region’s potential for population growth?

The region’s population will likely increase.


Which of the following is not one of the world’s top five most populous nations?



Replacement fertility ________.

is equal to 2.1 in stable populations


Increasing levels of literacy among women is shown to ________

lower TFR


Declining death rates due to increased food production and improved medical care while birth rates remain high is characteristic of the ________ stage.



Which of the following countries has the highest population growth rate?



The richest one-fifth of the world’s population possesses approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth uses over 86% of the world’s resources.



In the demographic transition model, the highest population growth rate in a country is likely to occur during ________.

stage 2, the transitional stage


A population which is not growing will have a TFR of ________.



Because of the success of China’s population control programs, ________.

China’s population growth rate is much lower than it was in the 1970s


What causes a decline in fertility rates?

an increase in family planning and birth control


Which term describes the amount of cumulative land and water required to provide the raw materials a person or population consumes and to dispose of the waste that is produced?

ecological footprint


Why are diseases such as AIDS, which reduce population density, undermining the ability of developing countries to make the transition to more modern, industrialized societies?

            They are causing “demographic fatigue,” which leaves these countries without a professional class.


Why aren’t more couples using birth control in Zambia? Birth control in Zambia __________.

            requires travel that many families cannot afford.


The number of children in a family in Zambia has largely been determined by __________.

            the father


To limit the growth of the Zambian population, humanitarian aid agencies and organizations such as UNICEF are focusing on __________.

            educating and empowering women


What is the relationship between family income and family size? In general, as family income levels __________.

            rise, families have fewer children


According to the graph, what type of relationship exists between a nation’s total fertility rate and its female secondary school enrollment rate?



Which two statements are supported by the graph?

            Increasing female secondary school enrollment is strongly associated with reduced fertility rates; Cambodia and Guatemala have similar fertility rates but differ in their secondary school enrollment rates.


Article: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/08/business/energy-environment/despite-push-for-cleaner-cars-sheer-numbers-could-work-against-climate-benefits.html?ribbon-ad-idx=6&rref=science/earth&module=Ribbon&version=origin&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Environment&pgtype=article

If predictions hold true, which two countries will be responsible for adding the most cars to the world’s total by 2030?

            China and India


You are an automobile engineer focused on decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide produced per mile driven. What are you working on?

            carbon intensity


Who sets automobile efficiency standards in the United States?

            federal government


You work for the Department of Transportation in the United States. You are sent to the country that has done the most to encourage electric car use to learn how they did so. Where do you go?



When it comes to climate change, which of the following is the least desirable way to produce the electricity for electric vehicles?

            using coal


Article: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/25/world/africa/mosquito-nets-for-malaria-spawn-new-epidemic-overfishing.html

You are an environmental toxicologist studying permethrin. Your research confirms what the EPA has said about this chemical. What did you find?

            Permethrin is harmful to both fish and humans.


You have developed a new way to keep mosquitoes away from sleeping people at night by dissipating the gas that attracts them. What gas did you focus on?

            Carbon dioxide


Which of the following is most likely to have the highest concentration of permethrin?

            Undried, fresh fish


If what happened in Madagascar holds true for other locations, which of the following will happen?

            Bans on using mosquito nets for fishing will be tried, but will not be successful.

Which of the following is likely the most effective way to increase the use of mosquito nets for their intended purpose?

Sell fishing nets for a cheaper price


Sex Education in Europe Turns to Urging More Births (New York Times, 4/8/2015)


Which of the following is currently contributing to low birth rates across much of Europe?

            High unemployment


Birthrate is which of the following?

Number of births per woman


Why is Denmark so concerned with its low birth rates?

Because after more than 40 years of low birth rates, they are starting to see the effects.


Which of the following do most experts believe will be the result of low birth rates in Europe?



Which of the following countries is closest to replacement fertility rate?

Iceland at 2.08

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