Oceanography Questions and Answers

Chapter 13 Oceanography – Questions and Answers 

What characteristic of most of the tropical open oceans is directly responsible for the low chlorophyll levels in these waters?

Low nutrient concentrations


The process by which energy derived from solar radiation is used by certain organisms to form organic matter is called



In general, the rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter is called

primary productivity


The nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in marine environments include




What percent of the ocean’s biomass relies either directly or indirectly on organic matter supplied by photosynthetic primary productivity?



Primary productivity data of the oceans is collected using satellites which measure ________.



The euphotic zone in the open ocean extends from the surface down to approximately

100 meters


When nutrients are not limiting productivity, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus in the tissues of algae is in the proportion of ________ (C:N:P).



When compared to coastal regions, solar energy extends ________ into the water column and concentrations of nutrients are ________ in the open ocean.

deeper; lower


When compared to the open ocean, solar energy extends ________ into the water column and concentrations of nutrients are ________ in coastal regions.

less; greater


Highly productive areas of coastal upwelling are found along the ________ margins of continents, where surface currents are moving ________ the equator.

western; toward


A fact regarding photosynthesis is that

water and carbon dioxide are converted to oxygen gas and sugar




Which of the following nutrients can limit primary productivity by phytoplankton?






What are the reaction products of photosynthesis?

Oxygen gas and sugar


What are the reaction products of respiration?

water and carbon dioxide gas


What type of organisms utilize photosynthesis?



            primary producers


What is the chemical formula for sugar?



How do plants and animals gain the energy needed to carry out cellular functions?



The most abundant marine macroscopic algae are members of the Division:


Many of the organisms responsible for toxic red tides and paralytic shellfish poisoning belong to the Division



Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division



The number of dead zones has ________ every decade from the1960s into the twenty-first century



In dead zones resulting from eutrophication, animal life is absent due to the lack of



Which is the largest river in North America, responsible for the large dead zone that forms each summer in the Gulf of Mexico?

Mississippi River


When does eutrophication occur?

when there are excess nutrients in the water


Why do waters become anoxic in a dead zone?

Bacteria that decompose the dead algae use up all of the oxygen in the water.

Where are dead zones more likely to develop?

where river draining areas with high human population densities discharge into the ocean


How might the development of dead zones be controlled?

by controlling the runoff of nutrients from agricultural lands

                with enhanced sewage treatment

                by planting trees and grasses

                through preservation of wetlands


The percentage of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor is approximately



The relative productivity in the world’s oceans from most productive to least productive is:

                WRONG ANSWER


Which of the following ecosystems has the highest average net primary productivity

Freshwater swamp and marsh


Which marine ecosystem has average net primary productivity comparable to a tropical rainforest

Algae beds and coral reefs


Which marine ecosystem has the lowest average net primary productivity?

Open Ocean


Productivity is limited by ________ in polar regions and by ________ in the low-latitude tropics.

available sunlight; nutrient supply


In middle latitude (temperate) oceans, primary productivity is limited by

both available sunlight and nutrient supply


Which of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions is/are true?

In polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter.

                In polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do not limit productivity

                In polar oceans, there is incredibly high productivity in the summertime


Which of the following statements about oceanic productivity is/are true?

In temperate oceans, the spring bloom is limited by the lack of nutrients

                In temperate oceans, the fall bloom is limited by the lack of sunlight.

                In tropical oceans, productivity is limited year-round by the lack of nutrients


Nutrient flow in an ecosystem is:



Energy flow in an ecosystem is:



Organisms within an ecosystem that nourish themselves through either photosynthesis or chemosynthesis are called


Organisms within an ecosystem that break down dead and decaying remains and waste products of organisms for their own energy requirements are called



Barnacles are an example of a heterotroph that feeds by ________ feeding



Clams are an example of a heterotroph that feeds by ________ feeding



Orchestoidea is an example of a heterotroph that feeds by ________ feeding



Sharks are an example of a heterotroph that feeds by ________ feeding.

active predation


In the ongoing processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition in the ocean, all components are recycled except



Of the following statements about feeding strategies, which is/are true?



Which of the following is in trophic level 1?



Which of the following are first-level consumers?




Which of the following are members of trophic level 5?



For every 500,000 units of radiant energy that enter an ecosystem from the Sun, how many units are transferred all the way to the top producers?

                WRONG ANSWER


What is kinetic energy?

energy of movement


The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is best defined as:

largest catch that can be taken without overfishing.


The term bycatch or incidental catch refers to:

non-target species that are caught along with commercial species


Which of the following is not a problem currently facing fisheries management?

Restrictions on the number of new fishing vessels


Due to concerns about mercury or other contaminants you should limit your consumption of all of the following except

Alaska Wild Salmon


Which of the following statements about marine fisheries is/are true?

In U.S. waters, 80% of commercial marine fish stocks are fully exploited or overfished

                Fishing practices have removed 90% of large marine predatory fish species


Chapter 14 Oceanography – Questions and Answers



The function of a swim bladder is:

to allow a fish to change position in the water column.


Microscopic, shrimplike animals that have a hard exoskeleton that can be either herbivorous, carnivorous, or parasitic are called



Which set of fins is used for turning and braking

pectoral and pelvic


Which set of fins is used as stabilizers

anal and dorsal


Which of the following animals doesn’t use a rigid gas container or a swim bladder



Which of the following animals uses an external shell as a rigid gas container to achieve neutral buoyancy



Which of the following animals uses an internal chambered structure as a rigid gas container to achieve neutral buoyancy



Which of the following animals compensates for not having a swim bladder by using large and flat pectoral fins and an asymmetrical caudal fin to produce lift?



Which of the following are single-celled, microscopic protozoans that build their hard shells out of silica



Which of the following have a hard exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed legs, forked tails and distinct antennae



Which of the following compose the majority of the ocean’s zooplankton biomass



Which of the following have soft bodies that are more than 95% water



Which of the following have gas chambers that serve as floats and sails that allow the wind to push them across the ocean surface



The stinging cells used by cnidarians to capture prey are called



The fins used by fishes primarily for maneuvering are

                pectoral and pelvic


Which of the following groups of organisms are considered zooplankton?






What type of fish is shown in the SmartFigure image?



What part of a fish helps it sense vibrations in the water

                lateral lines


What part(s) of a fish is/are used for thunniform swimming?

                caudal fins



Which part of the fish is most commonly used to propel high-speed fish?

                caudal fins


What is the role of the operculum?

                covering the gills of the fish


What would happen to a fish with a body less dense than the surrounding seawater?

                The fish would float on the ocean surface.


What is a swim bladder?

                WRONG ANSWER


Some specialized deep-sea fish have a swim bladder that is filled with what to help them stay in the deep ocean?



What happens to the swim bladder as a fish moves into deeper water? \

                The gas in the swim bladder contracts due to increasing water pressure.

                The gas in the swim bladder contracts, decreasing the volume of the swim bladder.


Which of the following adaptations allows a fish to add or remove gases rapidly to change depths quickly?

                a swim bladder with a pneumatic duct


Which of the following affect the ability of species to capture food?

                All the above affect the ability of pelagic organisms to capture food.


Which of the following characteristics is not found in cruising fishes such as tuna?

                They rely on a swim bladder for neutral buoyancy


An organism such as a fish whose body temperature is nearly the same as the environment is referred to as



Which of the following is not an adaptation of deep-sea fishes

                Large body sizes


Which of the following is not one of the reasons bioluminescence is employed by deep-sea animals

                Warning coloration


Red muscle tissue in fish is ________ and contains much ________ concentrations of myoglobin than white muscle tissue.

                thinner; higher


The oxygen-storing compound in the red muscle tissue of fishes is called



Of the following statements about bioluminescence in deep-water nekton, which is/are true?

                Bioluminescent light can be used to stake out territory.

                The majority of deep-water nekton can bioluminesce.

                A flash of bioluminescent light can temporarily blind a predator, allowing the prey to escape.

                Bioluminescence can be used to attract a mate.                                        

                Bioluminescent light can attract and lure prey to a predator.


Which of the following is the most important function of schooling in small fish?

                Protection from predators


A remora attaching itself to a shark to obtain food and transportation without harming its host is an example of which of the following types of symbiotic relationship?



The stinging tentacles of a sea anemone protecting a clown fish which chases away any fish that tries to feed on the anemone is an example of which of the following types of symbiotic relationship?



An isopods attaching itself to a fish and derive its nutrition from the body fluids of the fish, robbing it of some of its energy supply, is an example of which of the following types of symbiotic relationship?



What suborder includes baleen whales?



What is baleen made of?



What style of feeding is used by whales with rorqual folds?

                gulp feeding


What type of whale captures prey by swimming at the surface with its mouth open to trap plankton in the fringe of its baleen?

                skim-feeding right whales


What feeding strategy best describes that of humpback whales?

                One or more individuals cooperate to corral prey using bubbles and then swim vertically to scoop up large quantities of fish.


What type of whale feeds primarily on amphipods and shellfish?

                gray whales that plunge into the muddy bottom and strain the invertebrates out


Sea lions are easily distinguished from seals because they:

                have external ears.


The gray whale and other baleen whales migrate every year to:



Whales evolved from a land-dwelling ancestor similar to which of the following



Which of the following statements regarding sea otters is correct?

                They are one of the few types of animals known to use tools.


Which of the following statements regarding polar bears is correct?

                They have massive webbed paws that make them excellent swimmers.


Which of the following statements regarding seals is correct

                They propel themselves through water by using their rear flippers.


Which of the following statements regarding Manatees is correct?

                Their front flippers have nails that resemble the nails on elephant feet.


Which of the following statements about the characteristics of marine mammals are true?



Which of the following statements about odontocetes are true?

                Odontoceti form long-lived social groups.

                Odontoceti have large brains relative to their body size.

                Odontoceti have prominent teeth and good vision

                Odontoceti have the ability to use echolocation


Which of the following characteristics are shared by all marine mammals?

                All marine animals have fur.

                All marine animals bear live young.

                All marine animals are warm-blooded

                All marine animal mothers nurse their young with their milk
















Which carnivore in the SmartFigure is known to use tools to open shells?



Which of the following marine carnivores are flipper-footed?



                sea lions


Which of the following statements is/are true regarding the order Sirenia?

                They are also called sea cows.

                The order Sirenia includes manatees and dugongs


Which of the following statements is/are true regarding the order Cetacea?

                Porpoises and dolphins are considered to be small whales.

                Many species of whales were hunted to the brink of extinction, but with protection, many of them are now making a comeback

                Baleens are made out of the same material that makes up humans’ fingernails and hair


Why was the seawall constructed in La Jolla?

                To create a quiet beach behind the seawall that is free of large waves so that children can safely use the beach.


What evidence exists that harbor seals have always been in the area?

                The existence of a rock offshore known as Seal Rock.


What is the harbor seal controversy at Children’s Pool in La Jolla California about?

                Do harbor seals have the right to use the beach at Children’s Pool?


What is the main opposition of having harbor seals at Children’s Pool in La Jolla?

                Harbor seals defecate in the water, producing high levels of bacteria in the water offshore


Because the area has not yet been designated as a marine sanctuary, lifeguards are allowed to do what so that people can use the beach?

                chase the harbor seals off the beach


Despite the International Whaling Commission ban on commercial whaling which of the following nations continues to hunt whales under the guise of scientific research?



Which of the following statements of the Pacific Coast Feeding Group is correct?

They spend the summer along the Pacific coast from Canada to northern California


Which of the following statements about gray whales are true?

Gray whales used to be known as “devilfish” because of their aggressive behavior toward whalers

                Gray whales spend most of their time in coastal waters

                Gray whales are one of only a few species ever to be removed from endangered status

                Gray whales undertak


Chapter 15 Oceanography – Questions and Answers



The distribution of benthic biomass is related to:

            primary productivity.


The most important limiting factor in rocky intertidal communities is:



Two dominant organisms of the rocky shore found high on the rocks of the intertidal zone are

            buckshot barnacles and limpets.


Two dominant organisms commonly found at mid-water levels of the rocky intertidal zone are

            goose-necked barnacles and mussels


The low-water portion of the rocky intertidal zone is dominated by:

            red and brown algae and surf grasses


The distribution of benthic biomass closely matches the distribution of ________ in surface waters.



Stinging cells, camouflage, and an inking response are adaptations to cope with which of the following adverse conditions of the rocky intertidal zone?



Ability to break off body parts and regrow them later is an adaptation to cope with which of the following adverse conditions of the rocky intertidal zone



Which of the following protects itself with stinging needlelike cells called nematocysts

            Sea Anemones


Which of the following digests the edible tissue inside a mussel shell by turning its stomach inside out and slipping it through the crack in the shell

            Sea stars


Of the following statements about benthic organisms, which is/are true

            The vast majority of benthic species live on the continental shelf.

            Many benthic organisms spend the first part of their lives in the pelagic environment

            High abundances of benthic organisms are found beneath surface waters with high primary productivity


Of the following adaptations, which apply to life in rocky intertidal environments?

            Some organisms can survive for long periods of time out of water.

            A thick exterior or exoskeleton helps protect creatures from being crushed

            Some organisms can grow directly on top of other organisms.


In a tidepools area such as that shown in the video, what is the correct order of intertidal zones, going from the base of the coastal cliffs into deeper water?

            spray zone, upper intertidal zone, middle intertidal zone, lower intertidal zone


In the spray zone, what is one common adaptation that marine organisms typically exhibit?

            They have hard shells that prevent organisms from drying out.


In the lower intertidal zone, what is one common adaptation that marine organisms typically exhibit?

            They are well camouflaged so that they can blend in and hide from predators during low tide.


Which of the following is/are examples of benthic organisms?





Which of the following statements is/are true regarding the distribution of oceanic benthic biomass? \

            Benthic biomass includes organisms that burrow into the seafloor, attach themselves to the seafloor, crawl around on the seafloor, and swim close to the seafloor.

            Areas of high benthic biomass correspond to areas of high primary productivity in the surface ocean.

            Benthic biomass is high along continental shelves because the water is shallow and benthic organisms can photosynthesize on the ocean floor.


Chlorophyll concentration is a direct measurement of what in the ocean?

            primary productivity


Which of the following statements is/are true regarding productivity in the ocean?

            Primary producers photosynthesize.

            Primary producers comprise the base of the food chain.

            Areas with high primary productivity will also support more consumers


Which of the following organisms withdraw into their shells to avoid drying out during low tide and to avoid the effects of rapid changes in environmental conditions?

            periwinkle snails

            black turban snails


Which of the following organisms attach themselves to rocks or the seafloor with threads, adhesives, a muscular foot, multiple legs, or hundreds of tube feet to anchor themselves?




            sea stars


Which of the following adaptations help organisms avoid predation?

            inking response


            hard shell

            stinging cells




Which of the following organisms have the ability to exist in varied temperature, salinity, pH, and low-oxygen environments for extended periods?





Which of the following organisms adapt to limited space by attaching to other organisms?






Which of the following marine habitats has the lowest species diversity

            mud flats


The most successful adaptation for living on a sediment-covered shore is:

            burrowing into the sediment.


Organisms that live in the spaces between sediment particles are called



Organic matter decomposes most slowly in

            mud flats


Of the following statements about benthic communities along sediment-covered shores, which is/are true?

            Gently sloping beaches with finer sediment show less distinct intertidal zonation as compared to coarser beaches.

            Coarse sandy beaches usually have the same tidal zonations as rocky shores

            Coarse sandy beaches usually have the same tidal zonations as rocky shores


Zooxanthellae are autotrophic marine protists that are found in the living tissues of some simple marine invertebrates such as corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish. Zooxanthellae are



Sewage discharge and fertilizer runoff is detrimental to coral growth because it increases the

            amount of inorganic nutrients in the water that stimulates excessive algal growth


Which of the following is a threat to coral reef survival?

            All of the above might contribute to the decline of a coral community


Which of the following animals feed directly on living kelp

            Sea urchins


The diversity pattern of reef-building coral observed in today’s oceans is related to which of the following

            The past positions of the continents



Most reef-building corals receive about ________ of their nutrition from symbiotic zooxanthellae algae



Which of the following statements regarding the benefits coral reefs provide to people is correct?

            Coral reef tourism provides some countries with over 50% of their gross national product.


Coral reefs cover less than ________ of the ocean’s surface area but they are home to ________ of all marine species

            0.5%; 25%


Coral bleaching often occurs in response to

            elevated temperatures


The most serious threat to coral reefs are



The organism posing the greatest threat to the kelp forest is the

            sea urchin


Of the following statements about kelp and kelp forests, which is/are true

            Kelp is held to the bottom by a strong anchor called a holdfast.

            The giant kelp Macrocystis can grow up to 0.6 meters (2 feet) per day


Which of the following statements about corals are true?

            Most corals go through a planktonic stage of life

            Some coral species grow in cold deep waters beneath the euphotic zone

            Most individual coral species are about the size of an ant

            Corals catch small food particles with stinging cells similar to those of jellyfish


Which of the following statements is/are true of corals?

            Corals are animals.

            Corals are benthic organisms

            Corals live in tropical water


At what water depth are delicate plate corals common?

            50–150 meters (164–492 feet)


Which of the following statements regarding corals and algae is/are true?

            Zooxanthellae are photosynthetic.

            The lithothamnion ridge is covered in a red algae called lithothamnion

            Zooxanthellae and corals have a symbiotic relationship\

            Zooxanthellae provide corals with food


Which of the following organisms is/are mentioned in the SmartFigure video as being common on the reef flat?

            fine branching and soft corals




Where on the coral reef structure would you expect to find the largest, strongest coral heads?

            20–50 meters water depth


Primary producers in hydrothermal vent communities are

            sulfur-oxidizing archaea


Which of the following statements about the physical environment of the deep-ocean is incorrect?

            The temperature rarely exceeds 0°C at the deep-ocean floor


Biocommunities at active hydrothermal vents had up to one ________ times more biomass than the rest of the deep-ocean floor.



The most important members of hydrothermal vent biocommunities are microscopic



Which of the following hydrothermal vent fields emits fluids at a much lower temperature compared to typical black smokers?

            Lost City


Scientists have proposed that which of the following deep ocean processes may hold part of the answer to the question of whether life on Earth emerged from the deep sea?



(Intro) The amount of life on the ocean floor depends primarily on

            the productivity of the surface layer above it


Which of the following statements about the characteristics of the deep-ocean floor are true?

            Deep-ocean communities exist in the bathyal, abyssal, and hadal zones.

            Species diversity in the deep ocean can rival that of tropical rain forests

            Only about 1% to 3% of the food produced in the euphotic zone reaches the deep-ocean floor

            Even in tropical latitudes, water temperatures in the deep ocean are near freezing


Which of the following environments supports chemosynthesis?

            subduction zones where methane from the decomposition of organic material in folded sedimentary rocks trickles from the sea floor

            areas where high-salinity waters percolate from the sea floor

            hydrocarbon seeps that emit methane

            mid-ocean ridges associated with black smokers


Which of the following are common to both chemosynthesis and photosynthesis?




            carbon dioxide


Which of the following chemical formulas represents a sugar molecule?



Which of the following organisms use photosynthesis?



            primary producers

            those that contain chlorophyll


Where do chemosynthesizers live?

mid-ocean ridges

            hydrothermal vents

            hot water springs


How did the discovery of hydrothermal vent communities in the 1970s change our understanding of life in the ocean?

Prior to this discovery, chemosynthesis was unknown at hydrothermal vents.

            Prior to this discovery it was thought that all primary producers were photosynthetic.

            Prior to this discovery it was thought that all life, even life in the deep ocean, depended on photosynthetic primary producers in the surface ocean.



On the diagram of rocky-shore tide zones shown below, use the organisms present to match each letter to the correct tide zone.












On the diagram below, match the correct letter to each of the following features of a sea anemone.

The diagram below shows tide zones in a sediment-covered shore. Use the letters to match the tide zones shown in the figure with the correct representative organisms.









The diagram below shows the structure of the giant brown bladder kelp (Macrocystis). Match each letter with its correct structure on the kelp.

Use the letters on the diagram below to match the coral types with the depth zones in which they live.


Chapter 16 Oceanography – Questions and Answers


Combustion of fossil fuels results in a transfer of carbon from the

            biosphere to the atmosphere


Which of the following is not part of Earth’s climate system?



An increase in cloud cover and a corresponding decrease in absorption of solar radiation is an example of a

            negative-feedback loop


Which of the following is considered paleoclimatological proxy data?

            Trapped air bubbles in glacial ice


Which of the following are examples of positive climate feedback loops?



What is the result of a positive feedback loop?



What is the result of a negative feedback loop?



Which of the following statements is/are an example of a positive feedback loop?



Which of the following statements is/are an example of a negative feedback loop?



Which of the following statements regarding the role of clouds in Earth’s climate is/are correct?



Which of Earth’s spheres make up the climate system?








Which of Earth’s spheres are humans a part of?



What is the primary driver of Earth’s climate?

            solar radiation


Which of the following statements correctly identify a mechanism by which two spheres interact?

            The biosphere and atmosphere interact through forest fires.

            The geosphere and atmosphere interact through volcanic eruptions.

            The hydrosphere and atmosphere interact through evaporation and precipitation.


How do snow and ice on the surface of Earth affect Earth’s climate?

            Snow and ice reflect incoming solar radiation.


What natural cause of climate change is most similar to the major anthropogenic source?

            volcanic eruptions


Variations in Earth’s orbit that influence long-term climate changes include

            eccentricity, obliquity and precession


Which of the following is a natural factor that doesn’t affect Earth’s climate?

            Reversed magnetic polarity


Which of the following is the only viable explanation for the documented and observable recent climate changes, including the increased average temperature of Earth’s surface?

            Release of human-caused emissions


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has issued which of the following statements?

            Climate change models can mimic present-day conditions only if human emissions are taken into account.


Using proxy data, scientists have compiled a detailed record of Earth’s climate over the recent geologic past. This science is called _________.



Periodic variations in Earth’s orbit that can cause natural climate changes are called

            Milankovitch cycles


Which of the following are useful as proxy data for understanding past climate changes?

            sea floor sediments

            fossil pollen

            annual layers of snow packed in glacial ice

            historical documents

            predictions of when the next large volcanic eruptions could occur


Of the following natural factors, which have caused past climate changes on Earth?

            changes in solar energy

            volcanic eruptions

            variations in Earth’s orbit


Approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the oceans and continents?



The atmospheric component that naturally contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth is:

            water vapor.


Burning of fossil fuels is chemically similar to:



Which of the following is not a consequence of global warming?

            All the above are consequences of global warming


Over the past 30 years, Earth’s average surface temperature has risen by



Shortwave sunlight passes through Earth’s atmosphere, where it strikes the surface and is converted into longer-wavelength ________ radiation



Which of the following is the key to understanding how the greenhouse effect works?

            The change of wavelengths from visible to infrared


Which of the following human-generated gases makes the greatest relative contribution to increasing the greenhouse effect?

            Carbon dioxide (CO2)


How much are global surface temperature expected to increase by the year 2100 if humans follow a “business-as-usual” scenario?




How much are global surface temperature expected to increase by the year 2100 if humans replace much of today’s fossil fuel combustion by new and more efficient technologies



How much are global surface temperature expected to increase by the year 2100 if countries come together to use both technology and general environmental controls to decrease emissions



The current level of atmospheric ________ recently surpassed 400 parts per million.

                carbon dioxide


Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect and global warming are true?



Where did the carbon dioxide and methane data in the SmartFigure come from?

                air bubbles in ice cores from Antarctica


According to the data shown in the SmartFigure, what is the natural range of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the past 800,000 years?

                180–280 parts per million (ppm)


According to the data shown in the SmartFigure, what is the natural range of atmospheric methane concentration over the past 800,000 years?

                350–750 parts per billion (ppb)


Which of the following statements regarding Earth’s natural climate variations is/are correct?

                Natural variations include the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.

                Recent spikes in carbon dioxide and methane are not a part of Earth’s natural climate cycle.

                When carbon dioxide concentrations are higher, methane concentrations are higher.


What is the cause of the recent spikes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations?

                Industrial Revolution


What was the concentration of carbon dioxide, in parts per million (ppm), in the pre-industrial period?



Which greenhouse gas is currently contributing the most to increasing the greenhouse effect?

                carbon dioxide


The concentration of which greenhouse gas is currently increasing at the fastest rate?



Which greenhouse gas is the most powerful in terms of how heat is absorbed by one molecule of the gas?



Which greenhouse gases have natural sources as well as human-caused sources?


                nitrous oxide

                carbon dioxide


What evidence is there that the O’Higgins Glacier is being affected by global warming?

                It has retreated nine miles in the past 100 years because of melting.


How might global warming affect cities that rely on glacial runoff for their water supply?

                Cities may face long-term water shortages as the amount of water generated by glacial melt will decline as glaciers shrink.


What is causing a decline in Antarctica’s Chinstrap penguins?

                Populations of the penguin’s major food source are declining because of melting sea ice


What has analysis of ice cores revealed about atmospheric greenhouse gas levels during the historic period?

                A sudden rise in greenhouse gas levels coincides with the start of the Industrial Revolution.


What impact would rising sea levels have on human migration

                Rising sea levels would cause enormous migration as people move inland away from affected areas.


Which of the following is not an effect of climate change in the oceans?

                decreasing ocean acidity


Satellite data show that the rate of global sea level rise since 1993 is on average about

                3 millimeters/year.


Circulation in which of the following oceans is particularly sensitive to changes in its deep-water circulation pattern that dramatically and abruptly affect climate?

                The North Atlantic Ocean


Increased ocean acidity due to the burning of fossil fuels doesn’t harm which of the following organisms?



Currently, about ________ of the carbon dioxide humankind releases into the atmosphere enters the oceans.



Climate models and observations to date indicate that the oceans will warm the most in

                high-latitude areas


Studies indicate that acidification of the ocean by the absorption of carbon dioxide is harmful to virtually all marine life and ecosystems. The group most vulnerable to both warming and acidification would be the

                reef corals and other calcareous organisms





Which of the following ocean changes are predicted to result from increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

                migration of marine organisms into deeper waters and toward the poles

                development of a stronger thermocline

                an increase in sea surface temperature


What is causing the oceans to become more acidic?

                The oceans have absorbed about 30% of the carbon dioxide released by humans into the atmosphere.


Which reaction below correctly illustrates why the ocean is becoming more acidic?

                CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3    


Which organisms are most sensitive to ocean acidity, and why?

Organisms with hard parts composed of calcium carbonate, because calcium carbonate dissolves in acidic seawater.


By how much has the pH of the ocean changed since the Industrial Revolution?

  • 1 pH unit


Which of the organisms below are directly affected by ocean acidity?


                sea urchins





The world’s oceans play a role in reducing global warming by:

                absorbing surplus heat energy


An international agreement to voluntarily limit greenhouse gas emissions is called the

                Kyoto Protocol


In 2015 President Obama’s White House set a formal goal of reducing US greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by



The ocean’s “biological pump”

                takes carbon from the photic zone and stores it in deep-ocean water and sea floor sediments


Global engineering (geoengineering) proposals to reduce Earth’s greenhouse effect include which of the following?



Which of the following statements about the iron hypothesis are true?




This image shows the three types of orbital variations that are involved in natural changes in Earth’s climate. Correctly match each one.

This diagram shows the spectrum of energy radiated by the Sun and Earth. Match the letters with the following items.



This graph from ice core data shows the correlation between atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, and temperature during the past 800,000 years. Correctly match the curves with their proper labels


This figure shows four examples of organisms that are affected by increased ocean acidity. Correctly match each picture with the name of the organism

This graph shows the four main components that contribute to global sea level rise. Correctly match each component with its curve.

                Based on current practices, it is predicted that marine fish stocks will be depleted by 2048

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