Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on psychological issues in social and political philosophy. Marx identified four different types of alienation to which workers are exposed in a capitalist system. On the other hand, Plato defended such a system in which people are divided by classes and there is a total dictatorship based on intelligence and merit. The following discussion will enumerate myriad different levels on which Marx and Plato differ from each other to illustrate the reality of this claim that “rule by the best reflects human ignorance and generates power relations in a society which leads to conflict and survival of the fittest.” If Plato and Marx are compared against each other on grounds of psychological issues like social alienation and conflict, it becomes clear that Plato’s ideal of society is flawed and generates chaos. The following discussion will serve to prove this argument.
As societies grow in size, increasingly complex patterns emerge and competition for survival gets tougher. This leads to the result that only the best or the fittest groups find it easier to survive and maintain a good life standard. Such is the philosophy presented by Marx. In contrast, Plato argued that an ideal society is that in which the political authority is granted to those who are the best or have the most power. Plato defended an aristocratic system. In such a socio-political system, an imbalance of resources occurs and conflict is born. In contrast to Plato who emphasized bigger units of society, Marx focused on individuals. Elaborating on Marxian ideas, I emphasize that the basic most aim of classes in society is to generate fierce competition for limited resources. Out of this competition are two classes born, the capitalist class and the working class. In contrast to Plato who argued that an ideal state or polis is characterized by the necessary division of labor, Marx claimed that in such a system, the working class is most often manipulated by the capitalist class. This happens due to the unequal distribution of wealth which is the established source of a broad range of psychological problems. Unequal distribution of wealth creates a gigantic rift between classes in a state. Focus shifts away from fundamental political notions like equality when people with better connections also known as elitists .are preferred over the rest.