1. Describe Mendel’s P, F1, and F2 generations in his experiments with pea plants.
2. Two heterozygote tongue rollers (dominant trait) have a child. What percentage of individuals would be predicted to be heterozygotes, homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive? What is the only genotype of two parents that would ensure that their offspring could not roll their tongue (recessive trait)? Explain your reasoning.
3. A man with AB blood and a woman with O blood have a child. What is the genotype and phenotype of both the man and woman? Is it possible for them to have a child with O blood? Explain. Also, explain what type of inheritance the ABO blood system demonstrates.
4. Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by two copies of a mutated CFTR gene. If one in 100 people in the United States have cystic fibrosis and one in 5.0505050505 people are carriers for cystic fibrosis, calculate the number of individuals that are homozygous dominant. In other words, how many people would have two copies of the normal (non-mutated) CFTR gene. Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation and explain how you determined this.
5. Red-green colorblindness is a recessive trait that is located on the X chromosome. A woman who is not colorblind but whose father is colorblind has a child with a man who is not colorblind. Predict the probability of their daughter having colorblindness, their daughter having normal vision, their son being colorblind, and their son having normal vision. Explain your reasoning.
6. One strand of a single DNA helix is labeled red while the other strand of the same DNA helix is labeled blue. This double helix DNA is replicated through the process of semi-conservative replication. Note that a completely newly synthesized strand of DNA will be white. Predict what the colors of the newly replicated DNAs (both strands) would be, explaining your prediction based on your understanding of semi-conservative replication.
7. Transcribe and translate the following sequence of DNA: TTAACGCCA. There is a mutation that resulted in AAA being inserted after G. Predict how this mutation would impact the product of translation.
8. Which of the following sequences cannot exist for a mRNA. Explain your answer.
9. Some antibiotics are used to kill bacteria by stopping the ribosome from functioning. Based on the central dogma of biology, why is this deadly for bacteria?
10. A cell has lost its ability to produce tRNA. Explain the consequences of this loss to the cell. Would this cell be able to divide? Explain.