Week 3: Principles of Epidemiology – Mini-Grant Project

Although there is variation among proposal formats, these are the sections that are commonly found in federal grant applications. Many agencies have specific requirements for length of proposals, either page number or word count limits. For this Mini-Grant Project, the page limitations are noted with each section. It is very important for your writing to be clear, succinct, and comprehensive.

Assignment Guidelines

  1. Needs Assessment (2–3 pages)
    1. Introduction: A general overview of the main idea of the project and its importance. Be sure to include the target population and approximately how many people will be served.
    2. Problem statement: Concise and clearly articulates the depth of the problem and why it is a concern.
    3. Purpose statement: Limit to one or two key areas as to what the project will involve and what it will accomplish.
    4. Program goals and objectives
      1. Goals are clear and concise statements as to what will be accomplished.
      2. Objectives are specific outcomes of the program that can be evaluated.
  2. Review of Literature: (2–3 pages). 5 articles published with the last five years drawing upon research, local and national data, or government statistics to summarize:
    1. Epidemiologic facts and statistics related to:
      1. Person, Place, and Time.
    2. Significance of the disease or condition and its impact on the health of the vulnerable population.
  3. Epidemiologic framework (epidemiological triangle, web of causation, ecological model) depicting specific risk factors of disease or condition (2–3 pages). Special consideration will be given to applicants that provide a graphic illustration.

Submission

Submit your assignment and review full grading criteria on the Assignment 3.1: Mini-Grant Project: Part One page.

Web of Causation Accessible Version

Genetics

The HLA-DRB1 gene is the gene most strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), contributing to up to one-third of the genetic predisposition to RA (Tobon, Youinou, & Saraux, 2010). The PTPN22 gene on chromosome 1 is the other main gene that increases susceptibility to RA, however, PTPN22 polymorphisms are rarely found in Asian populations (Tobon et al., 2010). Polymorphisms of the PADI4 gene are most consistently associated with RA in the Asian population (Tobon et al., 2010). “The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope and PTPN22 risk alleles are associated only with the RA pattern characterized by the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor” (RF; Tobon et al., 2010, p.12).

Smoking

The strongest known environmental risk factor for RA is smoking (Liao, Alfredsson, & Karlson, 2009). Developing RA is two times higher for male smokers and 1.3 times greater for female smokers versus for non-smokers (Sugiyama, Nishimura, & Tamaki, 2009). The risk was the same for men and women, however, if smoking was heavy (20 or more pack-years; Sugiyama et al., 2009). The risk of smoking and the development of RA is further increased if smokers carry the shared epitope on the HLA-DRB1 allele and the risk of developing ACPA and RA is 21-fold higher for smokers that carry two copies of the shared epitope than non-smokers who do not carry the shared epitope (Liao et al., 2009).

Alcohol

Individuals that consume less than 0.5g of alcohol in a week are at increased risk of developing RA (Liao et al., 2009). Those that consume more than five drinks or 80gm of alcohol in a week have a 40-50% risk reduction compared to those with little or no consumption of alcohol and this risk is further reduced for shared epitope carriers (Liao et al., 2009).

Geography and Environment

In the United States, those living in the Northeast or mid-west have the highest risk of developing RA (Liao et al., 2009). Living in an urban setting, lower altitudes, and exposure to traffic pollution all affect susceptibility to RA (Liao et al., 2009; Tobon et al., 2010).

Gender and Age

RA is three times more frequent in women than in men and prevalence and incidence rises with age; and the highest maximal incidence is in the age group 65-74 years (Myasoedova, Crowson, Kremers, Therneau, & Gabriel, 2010; Tobon et al., 2010).

Education and Occupation

Liao et al. (2009) states the risk of RA is two-fold when comparing individuals with college degrees with those without college degrees and for individuals in an occupation that requires manual labor, the risk of RA was 20% more than non-manual laborers.

Birthweight

Birthweight greater than 4 kilograms is associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of RA and birthweight greater than 4.54 kilograms is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of RA (Liao et al., 2009; Tobon et al., 2010).

Who are Americans? infographic to answer the following questions

(Q001) Watch the animation and study the Who are Americans? infographic to answer the following questions.

Click to launch the Who Is Represented by PACs? animation.
https://util.wwnorton.com/jwplayer2/iframe.html?playerid=vid1547497787021&playertype=video&skin=default&aspectratio=16:9&stretching=uniform&file=/wwnorton.college.public/Political_Science/We_the_People/WTP12/Who+Are+Americans/Animations/PACS/pacs.mp4&seekTime=0&videoimg=/wwnorton.college.public/Political_Science/We_the_People/WTP12/Who+Are+Americans/Animations/PACS/pacs.jpg&showCC=1&videocaption=/wwnorton.college.public/Political_Science/We_the_People/WTP12/Who+Are+Americans/Animations/PACS/pacs.vtt

Click here to view the infographic.
https://d1lexza0zk46za.cloudfront.net/Political_Science/We_the_People/WTP12/Who+Are+Americans/Infographics/WTP12_WAA_PACs.jpg

Based on the information presented in this activity, which of the following statements is accurate?

PACs spent equally on Republicans and Democrats in 2016.

PACs representing financial groups spent the most.
PACs representing all sectors have always spent more on Republicans than Democrats.

PACs representing financial groups and agricultural groups tend to favor Democrats, while PACs representing lawyers and lobbyists favor Republicans.
Question 2

(Q002) Approximately how much did PACs representing the transportation industry spend in 2016?

$120 million

$26 million

$9 million

$5 million
Question 3

(Q003) Which of the following industries’ PACs most heavily favored Republican candidates?

lawyers and lobbyists

agribusiness

defense

labor
Question 4

(Q004) Why do you think PACs have recently been more likely to donate to Republican candidates than to Democratic candidates?

LAH Quiz

1. Anarcho-syndicalism was introduced to urban industrial centers by immigrants, especially those from
2. Some of South America’s earliest unions resulted from Anarchist efforts to mobilize marginalized groups.
3. José Batlle y Ordóñez rose to prominence in Uruguay’s liberal
4. One of Batlle y Ordóñez’s reforms was to legalize divorce, though it still required the assent of both husband and wife.
not completed

5. The secret ballot and system of proportional representation were introduced in Argentina through the
6. Hipólito Yrigoyen offered employment and other favors in return for political loyalty, a practice known as
7. Hipólito Yrigoyen was a supporter of unions regardless of their political associations, under the belief that a strong working class would benefit Argentina.
8. Labor groups sought to address gender inequality and female exploitation in the workplace as a way to recruit new members.
9. Activists like Alicia Moreau campaigned for suffrage by arguing that
not completed

10. In 1922, Yrigoyen formed the world’s first state-owned
not completed

11. The Chilean leader viewed as a precursor to populism was
12. The first Latin American country to grant women the right to vote was
13. The military response to the 1928 banana workers’ strike in Ciénaga against the United Fruit Company violently dispersed a crowd of _______.
14. Soccer was introduced to South America by immigrants from
15. The first phase of the Mexican Revolution, in which Porfirio Díaz was removed from power, lasted
16. The only Latin American nation that attempted to address the needs of indigenous communities through land reform was

As a student at UMGC, you have been asked to join a fictional committee that will partner with new students…

As a student at UMGC, you have been asked to join a fictional committee that will partner with new students in various programs of study. You will work alongside UMGC students from other programs to coordinate a weekend event that includes a tour of the campus, an informal meeting with students who are interested in your program, and a lunch-and-learn session with a panel of experts from various fields.

During the meeting with students who may be interested in your field of study, one student mentions that a program requirement is statistics. That student asks you why statistics is needed in this program. Do research online and create a thoughtful reply to the student, including a list of at least 3 specific ways in which statistics is used in your field. Include references from the online sources. This serves as your initial post to the discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Read the replies from the other members of the class and compare the role that statistics plays in various fields. Are you surprised by any of the ways that statistics can be used across disciplines? Did you see any commonalities? Make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

Discussion 2: Your work on the new student committee was a huge success!

Your work on the new student committee was a huge success! The director of new student recruitment has requested that you continue your work on the committee. Specifically, the director would like you to distribute a small survey to the students who attended the weekend event, gauging their level of interest in studying at UMGC. The director is interested in obtaining demographic information from the prospective students, the academic program into which they would enroll, and their overall level of interest in attending UMGC. The survey questions and results are below:

 

Survey questions given to prospective students 

  • What is your age?
  • Would you live in on-campus housing or off-campus housing?
  • Into which academic program would you enroll?
  • How likely are you to attend UMGC in the next year? (rate 1-4, 1 is not likely and 4 is very likely)

  

 

Student

Age

Housing

Academic Program

Likely to attend UMGC

1

18

Off campus

Political science

4

2

19

Off campus

History

1

3

17

On campus

Cybersecurity

2

4

30

Off campus

Nursing

4

5

18

On campus

History

3

6

21

On campus

Psychology

4

7

45

Off campus

Business

2

8

20

On campus

Business

3

9

18

On campus

Accounting

4

10

36

Off campus

Nursing

4

11

25

Off campus

History

2

12

29

Off campus

Sociology

2

13

31

Off campus

Spanish

2

14

19

On campus

Psychology

2

 

Your first task is to define the data resulting from each survey question as qualitative or quantitative.  If the variable is qualitative, indicate if it is nominal or ordinal.  If it is quantitative, indicate whether it is discrete or continuous and whether it is interval or ratio (see graphic below).

 

 

Next, create a table (a frequency distribution, stem and leaf plot, or a grouped frequency distribution) to organize the data from one of the variables.  Does including the relative frequency or cumulative frequency make the table more meaningful? Why do you feel this table best organizes the data? Include the table in your post.

Then, consider how you might visually display the results as a graph (bar graph, Pareto chart, dot plot, line graph, histogram, pie chart, or box plot). Why did you choose this graph? Explain why you believe this graph is the best choice to display the data. Include the graph in your post.

Finally, find the mean, median and mode for one of the variables. Which of these measures of central tendency do you think is the best choice for “average” and why? Find the range and standard deviation (measures of dispersion) for the variable. What would a narrower or wider deviation signify in the context of this data?

 

Your initial post to the discussion (covering the 4 tasks above) is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Consider the graphs/charts and measures of central tendency and dispersion that your peers have chosen. Do they align with your choices? Discuss at least one benefit of your peer’s choices. Can you share a recommendation to improve their choices? At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

WEEK 3 DISCUSSION: Probability tells us the chance or likelihood that a particular event will occur.

Probability tells us the chance or likelihood that a particular event will occur. Whether or not we realize it, every day we use probability to make decisions. For instance, when deciding whether to take an umbrella, we check the weather forecast to see the probability that it will rain. In this instance, probability tells us the likelihood that it will rain; however, the decision about taking an umbrella is based on an individual’s willingness to risk getting rained on. Some people will take an umbrella, when the probability of rain is at least 40%, while others will wait until the probability is at least 60%.

What are two examples in which you have used probability to make a decision? One example should be from your personal life and one from your work life. If you do not work, show two examples from your personal life. Provide specific numeric values to show how the decision was made. Share this in your initial post to the discussion, which is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Review the examples provided by the other members of the class. Make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

WEEK 4 DISCUSSION – By now you are adept at calculating averages and intuitively can estimate whether something is “normal”

By now you are adept at calculating averages and intuitively can estimate whether something is “normal” (a measurement not too far from average) or unusual (pretty far from the average you might expect). This class helps to quantify exactly how far something you measure is from average using the normal distribution. Basically, you mark the mean down the middle of the bell curve, calculate the standard deviation of your sample and then add (or subtract) that value to come up with the mile markers (z scores) that measure the distance from the mean.

For example, if the average height of adult males in the United States is 69 inches with a standard deviation of 3 inches, we could create the graph below.

WEEK 5 DISCUSSION – Reflect on your course experience thus far.

Now that we are at the midpoint of the course, it is important to pause and reflect on your course experience thus far. In your initial reply, answer the following questions:

1. What are you doing to help yourself learn in this class that you are going to keep doing because it’s working?

2. What are you doing that is hindering you from learning in this class that you are going to quit doing?

3. What do you think will help you improve your learning in this class that you are going to start doing?

 

This serves as your initial post to the discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Discuss your responses with your peers. What new tips or strategies did your peers recommend that you will use for the remainder of the class? Make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

WEEK 8 DISCUSSION/WEEK 7 DISCUSSION/WEEK 6 DISCUSSION

WEEK 8 DISCUSSION

Think back to week 1 of the course when you joined the fictional committee to assist prospective students interested in your program. One student had asked how statistics was used in your field, and you did an online search to identify 3 examples. Now that we have wrapped up the course, consider how you would change your response to the student. Reflecting on the content topics that you have learned, what are 3 additional ways in which statistics is used in your field?

After posting your initial reply (due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday), make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

WEEK 7 DISCUSSION

Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply post.

Topic 1:

One goal of statistics is to identify relations among variables. What happens to one variable as another variable changes? Does a change in one variable cause a change in another variable? These questions can lead to powerful methods of predicting future values through linear regression.

It is important to note the true meaning and scope of correlation, which is the nature of the relation between two variables. Correlation does not allow to say that there is any causal link between the two variables. In other words, we cannot say that one variable causes another; however, it is not uncommon to see such use in the news media. An example is shown below.

WEEK 6 DISCUSSION

Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply post. 

Topic 1:

Results from surveys or opinion polls often report a range of values—the sample statistic plus or minus a margin of error (the resulting range is called a confidence interval).  This tells us that the range is likely to contain the population parameter. How much wiggle room we provide is based on how much confidence we wish to have that the range contains the actual population mean. That confidence level is directly related to the middle “truth” area we will accept versus the dubious tail area we will reject–also known as alpha (α).  The more confidence we wish to have—the more middle ground we will need to accept (more wiggle room) thus a smaller tail area.  If we insist on a larger alpha (more dubious tail area) we narrow the middle ground we will accept and thus provide less wiggle room—so the more likely it is that we will miss the true average (and thus we have a lower confidence level).  A 95% confidence level leaves 5% alpha.  A 99% confidence level leaves 1% alpha.

Now, without calculating a mean or margin of error or a confidence level, provide an example from your current (or your future) professional or personal life that describes a measurement that is normal—and how much wiggle room on either side would be appropriate.  When would you want a 95% confidence interval and when would you be interested in a 99% confidence level (a little more wiggle room—so a wider range)? This serves as your initial post to the discussion (if you choose topic #1) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

-OR-

Topic 2:

Two or more samples are often compared when we suspect that there are differences between the groups—for example, are cancer rates higher in one town than another, or are test scores higher in one class than another? In your chosen field, when might you want to know the mean differences between two or more groups? Please describe the situation (what groups, what measurements) including how and why it would be used. This serves as your initial post to the discussion (if you choose topic #2) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

Students will research and prepare written briefs of significant court cases.

In this course, students will research and prepare written briefs of significant court cases. Briefs should include a discussion of the connection between the court findings and the Saint Leo Core Value of Integrity.

 

Select one of the following and write a case brief:

 

    • Katz v. U.S.
    • U.S. v. White
    • California v. Hodari D.
    • Miranda v. Arizona  
    • Berkemer, Sheriff of Franklin County v. McCarty  
    • Chimel v. California
    • Knowles v. Iowa
    • Illnois v. Rodriguez

 

For guidelines in writing and formatting the case brief, please refer to the sample case brief.

A grading rubric is available in Doc Sharing.