In many preliterate societies, witchcraft serves as an everyday, socially acceptable way of managing tension, explaining the otherwise unexplainable, leveling disparities in wealth and status, and resolving social conflict.
Witches and sorcerers are
A.universally understood as harbingers of misfortune and evil
B.terms that are used interchangeably in anthropology to refer to those who manipulate supernatural forces to do harm to others
C.increasingly being differentiated in the field of anthropology on the basis of the source of their power and their physical and social associations
D.essentially the same except that witches tend to be female, awhile sorcery is an exclusively male profession; therefore, both roles are often represented in preliterate societies
3. Education level is a determining factor in cultural beliefs about witchcraft. True False 4.The “labeling theory of deviance” asserts that A.the designation of deviance is entirely dependent upon the world-view and customs of a particular society B.there are at least four different levels of deviance in any society ranging from mild impropriety to social pariahs C.once members of society have been labeled as deviants, they become the lowest common denominator socially and, thereby, are assigned only partial personhood in the society D.the designation of behavior as deviant focuses on the reaction of involved instead of on the act itself 5. In Thomas’ article, Witchcraft is a popular explanation for HIV due to A.rapid and often unpredictable socio-economic change B.high rate of illness and death in persons of prime working age C.traditional regional attribution of misfortune to witchcraft D.all of these 6. The linkage of witchcraft to HIV/AIDS in Namibia has __ incidence of HIV/AIDS testing and diagnosis. A.maintained B.slightly decreased C.increased D.dramatically decreased 7. Among the Kabana of West New Britain, the sorcerer’s threat inhibits deviance and mediates conflict so successfully that no one is actually ever sorcerized. True False 8.In Namibia, a witchcraft accusation can result in A.increased isolation and severing of social ties for the victim and their family B.increased isolation and severing of social ties for the accused and their family C.neither of these D.both of these 9. Victims of sorcery among the Kabana are assumed to have violated social mores and values, thereby infringing on the rights of others. True False 10. Among the Kabana, the decision to sorcerize and the execution of that decision A.is made outside the village so that sorcerers in the village who are related to the intended victim cannot sense the intent to attack B.is a personal matter negotiated in secrecy C.is only made by the head of a family clan, although he can often be persuaded when enough of his extended family is in favor D.should result from corporate deliberation and follow certain procedural rules
11. Kabana sorcerers may sometimes leave “calling cards” to announce the impending intent to sorcerize the victim. True False 12. “Esbats” are seasonal ritual meetings. True False 13. According to the reading, most covens hold their meetings in the nude. True False 14. Luhrmann, a witch herself, traces the modern revival of witchcraft to A.a modern reexamination of the goddess cults and festivals held in Ancient Greece in honor of Aphrodite B.ancient Pagan magico-religious cults rediscovered in Celtic texts and artifacts C.the anthropological dissemination of ancient (pre-Christian) Sumerian goddess rites previously unknown in the Western world D.the fictitious ethnographys and other writings produced by Gerald Gardner in the 1940s 15. According to Luhrmann, feminist covens A.emphasize collectivity and creativity more than other types of modern witchcraft B.have only been identified in the past and are not part of modern witchcraft C.rely the most heavily on historical documents like ancient Sumerian and Egyptian texts associated with Goddess worship D.are relatively rare in the United States but very popular in England 16. Modern witchcraft is a religious movement that is almost entirely made up of disenchanted “thirty-something” intellectuals. True False